LEADING OFF: Yanks go for sweep; Price to rejoin Red Sox

A look at what’s happening around the majors Thursday:



CC Sabathia (2-0, 1.39 ERA) and the rolling New York Yankees go for their 18th victory in 19 games and a three-game sweep of rival Boston. New York (26-10) has won eight straight overall and 11 in a row at home. The new AL East leaders have sole possession of the best record in the majors for the first time since July 27, 2012. The Yankees are on a 35-8 tear in the Bronx since Sept. 2, including the postseason, and at 16-5 have the best home record in the majors this year. Eduardo Rodriguez (3-0, 5.29) pitches for the Red Sox.


Red Sox lefty David Price is expected to rejoin the team at Yankee Stadium, a day after being diagnosed with carpal tunnel syndrome in his pitching hand. He was sent back to Boston this week after experiencing numbness for the second time this season.

Manager Alex Cora hasn’t ruled out Price to pitch Saturday’s game at Toronto. The 2012 AL Cy Young Award winner is 2-4 with a 5.11 ERA in seven starts.

Carpal tunnel syndrome is an uncommon injury for baseball players. It’s caused by repeated motions, such as typing, and is more common among esports athletes. Price is a longtime video game enthusiast, and recently said he’s spent a lot of time playing the popular Fortnite. Cora said he didn’t think video games had brought on the syndrome, but he said Fortnite might be discussed when he sits down with Price to lay out a recovery plan.


Matt Harvey meets his new team when the Cincinnati Reds open a series at Dodger Stadium. The Reds got Harvey from the Mets for catcher Devin Mesoraco on Tuesday, and the former ace has been working out in Los Angeles since being cut last weekend.

Interim Reds manager Jim Riggleman hasn’t decided when Harvey will pitch or whether he’ll initially be used as a starter or reliever. Harvey was 0-2 with a 7.00 ERA in eight games for the Mets, four starts.


Marlins rookie Caleb Smith hasn’t given up a run in his last two starts, totaling 12 2/3 innings against Colorado and Cincinnati. The 26-year-old lefty tries to extend his nice run when he faces Atlanta.


Dodgers rookie Walker Buehler pitches for the first time since starting a combined no-hitter last week in Mexico. The 23-year-old righty threw six strong innings against the Padres, and the Los Angeles bullpen finished it off. Buehler (2-0, 1.13 ERA) takes on the visiting Reds.


Yankees first baseman Greg Bird is set to begin a rehab assignment with Class A Tampa as he works back from ankle surgery. The oft-injured Bird has been playing in extended spring training and homered Tuesday. Bird had surgery March 27 and was projected to miss nearly two months. Manager Aaron Boone estimated Bird would need 10 to 20 days on a rehab assignment before he’d be ready to return to the major leagues.


More AP baseball: //apnews.com/tag/MLBbaseball

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Gaps remain in U.S. state policies on suicide prevention training

(Reuters Health) –

Most states don’t require suicide prevention training for healthcare professionals and those that do vary widely in the scope of their policies, U.S. researchers say.

Despite national recommendations in place since 2012, researchers found that as of 2017, only 10 states – California, Indiana, Kentucky, Nevada, New Hampshire, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Utah, Washington and West Virginia – required mental and behavioral healthcare professionals to complete training in how to spot someone at risk for suicide and take preventive action.

Only three of these states – Nevada, Washington and West Virginia – include other types of healthcare professionals like nurses and physicians in mandated training. In Indiana, only emergency medical providers are required to have the training.

The notions that healthcare professionals are uniquely placed to help head off a suicide and that training to prepare them for that role should be mandatory date to the U.S. Surgeon General’s 2001 National Strategy for Suicide Prevention report, which urged states to develop comprehensive suicide prevention plans.

A subsequent report in 2012 recommended that credentialing agencies make sure new healthcare professionals achieve core competencies in suicide prevention appropriate for their respective disciplines, the study team notes in the American Journal of Public Health.

“Our hope is that by providing a snapshot of the current state of suicide prevention policies across the nation it will hopefully encourage other states to consider developing policies of this nature and will promote a greater consistency of training of providers,” said one of the study’s authors, Jessica Mackelprang, a lecturer in psychology at Swinburne University of Technology in Melbourne, Australia.

Suicide is the 10th leading cause of death in the U.S., according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, claiming the lives of nearly 45,000 people in 2016.

Some past research has found that most people who attempt suicide have seen a healthcare professional in the weeks or months before their suicide attempt, the study team notes.

The researchers searched state databases and legislation tracking services to identity state policies related to suicide prevention and training for healthcare providers.

As of October 2017, they found, all 50 states had a suicide prevention plan, and 43 had one that had been issued or revised since 2012.

Five states: Missouri, Texas, New Jersey, Virginia and North Carolina, have suicide training bills under consideration. Connecticut, Maine and Minnesota had bills that failed to pass.

Researchers also found that the duration and frequency of training required under state policies varies widely, from one or more hours of training upon license renewal to six hours every six years.

Policies in seven states – Colorado, Hawaii, Illinois, Indiana, Louisiana, Michigan and Montana – just encourage training, but don’t require it.

The results provide a roadmap for what should be done, said Jane Pearson, chair of the National Institute of Mental Health Suicide Research Consortium, who wasn’t involved in the study.

“When there’s someone in crisis you have to gather information very quickly and if you’re not asking the exact right questions you can miss someone’s intentions,” she said in a telephone interview.

“You don’t have to be a perfect interviewer to save someone’s life, but you have to listen, respect and try to understand what got that person to view suicide as a solution. The most pressing goal is to increase the person’s will to live so it’s greater than their will to die, and buy time to get past the crisis so they have a chance to work on problem solving,” Pearson added.

“We need to train our clinicians better. People are still doing things that don’t work at all, like no-suicide contracts,” said Julie Cerel, president of the American Association of Suicidology and a psychologist at the University of Kentucky College of Social Work in Lexington who wasn’t involved in the study.

“It’s much better if people have access to evidence-based treatment that addresses suicide,” Cerel said in a telephone interview.

Washington was the first state to mandate suicide assessment, treatment and management training for all healthcare providers after Jennifer Stuber spear-headed the Matt Adler Suicide Assessment, Treatment and Management Act of 2012, named for her husband who died by suicide in 2011.

“I absolutely believe that if I had a better education and his providers had been better trained he might still be alive today,” said Stuber, an associate professor of public policy at the University of Washington School of Social Work in Seattle and faculty director of the suicide center she co-founded, Forefront.

SOURCE: bit.ly/2I1tbS0 Journal of Public Health, online April 19, 2018.

This version of the story has been refiled to correct typo in Swinburne University name in paragraph 6

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Why You Should Keep A Workout Journal

Do you keep a training diary? If not, you’re making a big mistake – it’s a key part of what it takes to build a bigger, stronger, leaner body. “For the best physique results you must keep detailed records of your workouts,” says Nick Mitchell, founder of the global personal training gym business Ultimate Performance. “You may be able to remember how much weight you lifted on your favourite exercise last week, but it is unlikely that you’ll recall this for every exercise in your programme.”

What’s even less likely is that you can remember how good your technique was or how challenging you found a specific weight during a given set.

“Recording your workouts can be highly motivational because it allows you to look back at the progress you have made and set goals for upcoming workouts,” says Mitchell. “The purpose of your workout journal is to document your progress, not to impress people. Crediting yourself with the extra rep performed with dubious technique doesn’t help you, and when you eventually complete the rep with proper technique, you will fail to notice your progress and think you’ve hit a plateau.”

Starting Your Training Journal

You can either record your workouts with a pen and paper or keep a digital version using your mobile phone or tablet. “Only use a phone or other device if you trust yourself not to get distracted by other apps,” says Mitchell. “Before each workout, spend five to ten minutes reviewing your previous performances. Once this is done, set realistic targets for each exercise ahead.” Here are some examples.

Target 1: Increase the weight

If you completed the rep target with a given weight and are happy with your technique, you need to decide how big an increase to make. You should base this decision on the number of reps you had in reserve above the target number on the previous set. Be prepared to adapt the rep target if the next available weight is too big an increase.

Target 2: Do more reps with the same weight

If you failed to complete the rep target on your final set with a given weight, then you should repeat the same weight and aim for more reps.

Target 3: Reduce the weight

If you were overly ambitious with your weight selection or unhappy with your technique, then you should reduce the weight by an appropriate amount.

Keeping Your Training Journal

Once you’ve identified your goal or goals for the forthcoming session, note the date and time, then make any additional notes on factors that may affect your performance, such as poor sleep, feeling under the weather or training in a different gym. The more notes you make, the better informed you will be to analyse the session in context.

As for recording the workout details, you need to capture the information that will provide valuable insights into your performance. After each set, record the exercise name, the amount of weight lifted, the number reps completed and how you felt.

For instance, if you finished your target number of sets of a given move and felt like you had more in the tank, make a note of how many additional reps you could have completed with proper technique, and then write “INC W” as a note for you to increase the weight next time you do this move. If you struggled, write down the rep number at which you reached failure or had to abandon the set with an “F” next to it, with a note to either “DEC W” (decrease weight), “DEC R” (decrease reps) or “REP R” (repeat reps). You can use up or down arrows instead of INC and DEC if you prefer, or create your own code to record your workouts quickly.

Once you start taking notes you’ll be amazed at how useful it is – and how essential it quickly becomes – to successful workouts. Your journal will be a much-wielded weapon in your fat-burning and muscle-building arsenal.

This is an edited extract from Principles Of Muscle Building Program Design: The UP Encyclopaedia of Personal Training Volume 1 by Nick Mitchell and Jonathan Taylor. It is available now on amazon.co.uk

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Try Tennis For Free With The Great British Tennis Weekend

Outside of the two weeks when Wimbledon is on, most people in the UK tend not to think about tennis too much. This is a huge shame because if you play regularly, tennis is both tremendously enjoyable and a fantastic way of staying fit. If, however, you only play during Wimbledon it can be a very frustrating experience for two reasons: all the courts are full because everyone in the country had the same idea, and playing a couple of times every year isn’t enough to get beyond the “hit most balls into the net/over the fence” stage of the sport.

Give it just a little more time, however, and you’ll be firing balls into all corners of the court like a pro, especially if you get a little expert guidance. If you take advantage of the opportunities available through the Great British Tennis Weekend, you can get plenty of playing time and a bit of coaching – all for free.

The Great British Tennis Weekend involves tennis clubs and venues opening up their facilities for free, although contrary to its name it runs throughout the summer. The two big weekends to circle in your diary are 12th-13th May and 21st-22nd July, when you’ll find that pretty much any tennis facility near you will have some kind of offering, but there are also events happening before, between and after those weekends.

Savvier types will realise that the second big weekend comes just a week after Wimbledon finishes, meaning you can expect a stampede to hit the free facilities, so we recommend signing up to the May weekend for what should be quieter courts.

The best way to see what’s available near you is to go the ClubSpark website and pop in your postcode. This will bring up all the Great British Tennis Weekend events around you ordered by how far away they are, along with details of what’s going on. At some places the courts will just be opened up for general use, but lots of clubs will be putting on free coaching sessions for all abilities.

If you haven’t swung a racket in anger since your childhood, this is an opportune time to get back into tennis, and if you’re an experienced player it’s a great opportunity to check out your local facilities and clubs if you’re not already a member. And if all of this sounds a bit too organised for you and you just want to know where you can play tennis in London, then check out this guide to capital courts you can book right now.

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Is it OK to pee in the shower? Top awkward health questions and answers

There’s a 99.99999 per cent chance you’ve often wondered why your body does weird things. For example, why do you sweat so much when you’re nervous? Or what happens when you hold your pee in? It’s also extremely likely that you’ve “accidentally” released your bladder a bit while in the shower. Yes, don’t feel guilty, we’ve secretly all been there, too.

But WHY does our body do these weird things, and what happens to it when we put it through these icky situations?

Well, we’ve granted you with your wish, and have had these questions answered for you. #noshame

1. Does it matter if I hold in pee?

If you do this a lot, you’ll weaken your bladder muscle, which can stop it from emptying properly and increase your risk of urinary tract infection, urologists warn.

According to scientists in Taiwan, this also places stress on your heart – an excessively full bladder raises your heart rate by up to nine beats per minute and reduces blood flow to your heart by 19 per cent, which can be risky for those with cardiovascular issues.

2. What makes my feet smell?

“Sweat and bacteria,” Professor Karl Ng of Sydney North Neurology & Neurophysiology, says. “Bacteria break down amino acids in sweat, which creates odour. The type of bacteria you have determines the odour.”

Washing daily with soap helps, as does spraying your feet with antiperspirant, Ng says. He adds that it’s also worth checking if you have an infection such as athlete’s foot.

3. Why do I sweat if I’m nervous?

“No-one knows exactly,” Ng says of this condition that can make you feel as if your body is betraying you. “However, the stress response is controlled by the limbic system of the brain, which is the ancient part, so there might be an evolutionary advantage, perhaps cooling the body quicker so you can run or fight.” Working on the brain’s stress response with cognitive behavioural therapy or with medication can help, Ng adds.

4. Is gum disease catching?

“It can be,” dentist Dr Jason Pang of Sydney’s Cosmic Smile Laser Dental says. “The bacteria that cause gum disease can easily be transmitted via saliva during kissing.” In fact, when researchers at the University of Southern California in the US analysed couples, they found that 36 per cent of them both tested positive for gum-disease-causing bacteria. This doesn’t mean you’ll get symptoms, though.

“Not everyone who carries the bacteria has the inflammatory reaction to it that leads to gum disease,” Pang says. Good oral hygiene, from both of you, further reduces your risk

5. Does my social smoking matter?

“Absolutely,” Dr Sarah White, director of Quit Victoria, says.

“Every time you smoke, your blood thickens and the blood vessels narrow, which increases your immediate risk of heart attack.” The good news is, if you only smoke, say, once a month with a particular friend, you don’t have a nicotine addiction. Change what triggers you to smoke by, for example, going somewhere with that friend where you can’t smoke and you can break the habit.

6. Why do I get spots on my bum?

Spots form when dead skin cells and oil clog the pores, and bacteria collects within them. “Spots on your back and bum occur because you don’t clear dead skin cells as readily there,” Laura Tsun, a dermal therapist at Sydney’s Pure Aesthetics, says. Use a cleanser containing salicylic acid, which stimulates more rapid cell renewal.

7. Is it bad to pee in the shower?

Not really as urine contains low levels of bacteria – and it’s good for the environment. According to data from the UK’s University of East Anglia, if all Brits peed during their morning shower instead of using the loo and flushing, it would save 720 million litres of water a year!

8. Can I use the five second rule?

No, according to a recent study by Rutgers University in the US. It found that bacteria can transfer to food in as little as one second, particularly wet foods like fruit. The surface it lands on also matters – less germs attach to food dropped on carpet than on tiles.

9. Can I sneeze with my eyes open?

Probably not. “The urge to close your eyes is an unconscious reflex, likely to stop whatever irritant has triggered the sneeze entering the eyes,” Sophie Koh of Optometry Australia says. And no, your eyeballs won’t pop out if you sneeze with your lids open as they’re secured by muscles and eye sockets.

However, doctors in the UK recently reported a case of a man who ruptured his throat by holding his nose and closing his mouth during a sneeze.

10. Is my poo normal?

The Bristol Stool Scale created by UK scientists says the ideal poo is like a smooth sausage and easy to pass. “Pellet-like stools indicate constipation,” nutritionist Despina Kamper says. “More water and fibre in the diet will help.” A liquid stool can be a sign of food poisoning or, if it happens regularly, could be due to a condition such as irritable bowel syndrome.

For more on this topic, this is who to call when you have a health-related topic. Plus, these are the answers to the most common questions pharmacists get asked.

Know someone who would find this interesting? Share this article with them!

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‘Ode to Joy’: 104-year-old sings cheerily on eve of suicide

A 104-year-old Australian man who plans to end his life in Switzerland on Thursday cheerily sang a few bars of Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony as he told reporters that medically assisted suicide should be more widely available and not only viewed as a last resort for the terminally ill.

As sanguine as David Goodall sounded, the British-born biologist’s approaching death has some people in the country where he came to die question if they want it to be known as the ultimate final tourist destination.

Assisted suicide is legal in Switzerland, but frowned upon by many doctors and some others who say it should be reserved for the terminally ill. Goodall’s supporters want the practice to be more accepted as a legitimate choice for elderly, ready-to-go people like him.

Hundreds of people, many of them cancer patients, come to the small Alpine country each year to take their lives with help. But Goodall isn’t sick. He just has some vision, hearing and mobility troubles common with advancing age.

Life Circle, a small assisted suicide advocacy group based in Basel, provides aid in a minority of cases like his. The group and an outside organization, Exit International, are helping Goodall achieve his wish and trying to show that it would be reasonable if others who are comparatively healthy but extremely old wanted to end their lives, too.

Swiss law currently allows assisted suicide for anyone who acknowledges in writing that they are taking their lives willingly — without being forced. The decades-old legislation that authorized the practice also says, somewhat vaguely, that people who help others to die cannot do so for “selfish” reasons.

But Swiss critics of broader use are uncomfortable with the idea of Switzerland becoming an international hub for assisted suicide. Ethicists at a leading Swiss medical association oppose assisted suicide for anyone besides people with terminal illnesses.

Basel City Councilwoman Annemarie Pfeifer, a leading critic of Life Circle, fears that widening assisted suicide beyond the terminally ill could one day lead to “pressure” being exerted on the infirm elderly to end their lives.

“We must be very careful with life,” she said. “It’s not good for my city if Basel has a reputation as a city of death.”

Still, the medical association is contemplating whether to ease its reservations about making assisted suicide an option for anyone besides the terminally ill, such as by possibly accepting that frail elderly people — like, say, willing people over age 80 — could take part.

Goodall and other supporters of assisted suicide say other countries should legalize the procedure so people in very poor health as well as those who ready to die don’t have to travel to Switzerland. They bemoan possible alternatives such as sudden, solo suicides — often without proper goodbyes to loved ones.

Goodall has bid farewell to relatives in Australia and France already. Other family members are expected to be on hand for his assisted suicide on Thursday outside Basel.

On Wednesday, surprised by the turnout, the centenarian told a crowded news conference that he’s ready to go — possibly by lethal injection, but that he’ll defer to the doctors on the method.

He quipped that if he were to choose any final music for the procedure, it might be Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony — then sang a few bars in German for the cameras. He ruled out a return to his beloved Australian countryside.

“At my age, and even at rather less than my age, one wants to be free to choose the death and when the death is the appropriate time. My abilities have been declining over the past year or two, and my eyesight for the past five or six years, and I no longer want to continue life,” Goodall said. “I am happy to have the chance tomorrow to end it.”

The Swiss federal statistics office says the number of assisted suicides has been growing fast: Nine years ago, there were 297. By 2015, the most recent year tabulated, the figure had more than tripled to 965. Nearly 15 percent of the cases last year were people under 65 years old.

Goodall is not religious. But it happens that he plans to die on Ascension Day, which commemorates Jesus’ rise to heaven after final death — a coincidence not missed by some in predominantly Christian Switzerland.

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Northern Colorado farmers determined to stay in business – The Denver Post

By Jacob Laxen, The Coloradoan

FORT COLLINS — As farmers toil with crops, chickens and hogs at Raisin Roots Farm, cars whiz by at the nearby intersection of Vine Drive and North Taft Hill Road.

A housing development borders the Fort Collins property, with eight fenced-in backyards directly facing the farm. The 3-acre space could likely fetch a hefty payday from a housing developer, but landowner Dennis Vanderheiden is committed to keeping it urban agriculture.

“It is a little oasis here in the middle of town,” said Vanderheiden, whose family has owned the property since 2009.

While the number of Larimer County farms has dwindled in the past decade — often giving way to housing developments — a core of dedicated farmers is driven to be part of the local food scene.

After Grant Farms CSA shuttered operations in December and declared bankruptcy in April, there are still about 20 current northern Colorado farms selling directly to the public. Most set up at eight weekly farmers markets scattered throughout Fort Collins, Loveland, Windsor and Wellington. A new monthly Sunday farmers market in Timnath is scheduled to debut in June.

Only about 4 percent of all food spending by Colorado residents was at Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) programs and farmers markets, a 2016 study conducted by Colorado Department of Agriculture and Colorado State University found.

Still, many local farmers are willing to put in long hours to make thin profit margins. And a number of area farmers say when executed correctly, the hard work yields a comfortable living.

“To a lot of folks, farming is a calling,” said Kevin Cody, the executive director for the Northern Colorado Food Cluster. “Anyone who chooses farming as a vocation and livelihood needs a kind of passion and commitment that you don’t necessarily find in other occupations.”

The passion for farming comes in various forms.

Raisin Roots head farmer Ben Pfeffer discovered his while completing an undergrad thesis about urban farming while at Towson University.

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How to pick a running shoe for newbies or veteran marathoners

Danica Hemmann of Denver, left, try on several different running shoes for her training with the help of Alex Dejournett of Runners Roost Lakewood. April 18, 2018. (Hyoung Chang, The Denver Post)

It started with the Nike Waffle Trainer in 1974. University of Oregon track coach Bill Bowerman ruined his wife’s waffle iron by using it to melt and mold urethane in his mission to invent the best sole pattern for a running shoe.

Bowerman was a genius — the little company he co-founded with Phil Knight would become an international behemoth in athletic footwear and apparel — but he forgot to spray that waffle iron with non-stick spray and the urethane glued it shut.

From his trial-and-error R&D came the Waffle Trainer, the first widely popular running shoe thanks to the running boom of the late 1970s, when millions flocked to the sport. Since then, that humble blue sneaker found a place in the Smithsonian’s National Museum of American History, Nike grew to a net worth of $30 billion, and the process of buying running shoes has gotten increasingly complex. Nike alone has more than 20 models.

Now there are a half dozen general categories — neutral, support, motion-control, minimalist, maximalist and trail shoes — and that’s not even counting the track and cross country “spikes” worn by competitors in high schools to the pros. With the proper shoes, running can be a relatively injury-free pursuit, but the wrong shoes can ruin the sport for you forever.

Experienced runners know the most important tip in buying running shoes is to shop at running specialty stores. Not only do they stock wider inventories than general retailers, but they also train their sales personnel in the biomechanics of running, and those folks will watch you run on a treadmill in the store to make sure you make the right choice. Often these staffers are current or former high-level competitors who study shoe characteristics keenly.

“Fundamentally, humans should have pretty specific mechanics,” said Joel Hamilton, a former All-American runner for the Colorado School of Mines who works at Runner’s Roost in Belmar. “We all have slight variations, but there are some core principles that the foot and the lower half of the body should follow in order to minimize risk of injury. We figure out exactly how they’re moving and then figure out the best solutions in order to get them to move as close to ideal as possible.”

Danica Hemmann of Denver, is testing a running shoes for her training on the treadmill at Runners Roost Lakewood. April 18, 2018. (Hyoung Chang, The Denver Post)

One of key terms in the mechanics of running is a rotation of the foot through impact called “pronation.” It’s the motion the foot uses to absorb impact safely — but too much or not enough of it is problematic. Those problems can be corrected with the right shoes.

“A person who has a neutral gait, it means they have a normal amount of pronation,” said Mark Plaatjes, a Boulder physical therapist and former world champion in the marathon. “If you put them in a neutral shoe, when you look at them running and they have all their weight on one leg, the shoe doesn’t drop inward; that would be (excessive) pronation. If it doesn’t stay to the outside; that would be supination.”

Thus the goal is “neutral” shoes for neutral gaits, “support” shoes for gaits with some pronation issues, and “motion-control” shoes for those who pronate even more.

MORE: 17 must-do road races in Colorado in 2018

“We look at how much pronation the foot has, then try to get it to the ideal amount,” Hamilton said. “The foot likes to be balanced, likes to be level. Over-pronation is when you roll in too far. If that’s happening, we want to push it back up a little bit. Opposite of that is supination or under-pronation, when you’re staying out too far.”

Complicated, right? That’s why it’s better to shop at a running store where someone with an expert eye can watch you run.

“I’m going to look at their feet to see if they have high arches, low arches, flat feet,” said Plaatjes, who co-founded the Boulder Running Company but no longer owns it. “I’m going to watch them walk with their bare feet and see how they function. Together with that, I will put them in a pair of shoes. You want to look at their gait when they’re running in a ‘neutral’ pair. If they are neutral, that pair will support them properly. If they don’t look correct in a neutral pair, then you want to go up in support. If the second category (support shoes) doesn’t do the trick, you might need to go into a motion-control shoe.”

The wall is covered by different kinds of running shoes at Runners Roost Lakewood. April 18, 2018. (Hyoung Chang, The Denver Post)

Plaatjes estimated 20 percent of runners will do fine in “neutral” shoes, while 60 percent need a minimal amount of support and the remaining 20 percent would do best in motion-control shoes. These can be critical concepts for runners to address because pronation issues can cause knee and hip injuries.

“If your foot is landing and getting to a neutral position — a level position — and staying there, the knee is usually tracking evenly over the top of it, and more often than not, you’re not going to have injury issues,” Hamilton said. “When things start to deviate from that, you tend to run into problems. Ninety percent of the time you can follow the chain reaction. If something on the outside of the body is hurting, usually that means for some reason the force or the weight is going to be staying on the outside, like IT (iliotibial) band tightness (outside knee pain). Eighty percent of the time, it’s because somebody is in too corrective of a shoe or their shoe is worn out.

MORE: 15 great running trails around Denver and Boulder

“If they’re getting inside knee pain, more often than not they’re in a shoe that’s not supportive enough. Their foot is over-pronating — arch collapses, knee rotates in and you start to get stress on the inside part of the knee.”

Got it? Great, because our tutorial is about to get even more complicated, thanks to the emergence of non-traditional concepts over the past decade. It started when some runners took up barefoot running or running in “minimalist” shoes following the 2009 publication of “Born to Run,” a book by Christopher McDougall about the Tarahumara tribe in Mexico’s Copper Canyons.

The Tarahumara are renowned for running extreme distances wearing thin sandals without getting injured. The success of the book triggered a minimalist trend whose proponents argued that humans evolved eons ago to run barefoot while hunting down prey, and that modern running shoes actually promoted injuries by altering natural biomechanics.

Danica Hemmann of Denver, left, try on several different running shoes for her training with the help of Alex Dejournett of Runners Roost Lakewood. April 18, 2018. (Hyoung Chang, The Denver Post)

Critics countered that evolution may have prepared humans to run in the wild but not on concrete and asphalt. Furthermore, modern humans wear shoes most of their waking hours from the time they leave the cradle, so asking them to adapt to running barefoot by learning entirely new running mechanics was asking for trouble. Lots of injuries resulted.

“That movement,” said Plaatjes, “has come and gone.”

But minimalism was followed closely by a “maximalist” concept pioneered by Hoka One One, a company whose shoes have much thicker soles than traditional running shoes. Hoka made it work by using lighter foam in the soles so its shoes are lighter even though they are considerably bigger with more “stack height.” They also have more cushioning, which conforms to the foot to provide support. Doctors frequently recommend Hokas for people who spend most of their work day on their feet.

As minimalist shoes fell out of favor, Hoka became a major player even though its shoes initially reminded some traditionalists of “clown shoes” when they first gained a market foothold. No one is laughing at Hoka now.

“They use a lighter foam that’s more compressive, and because it’s lighter, they put more of it underneath the foot so you’re higher off the ground,” Hamilton said. “Maybe a way to think of it would be like a standard mountain bike tire compared to a fat mountain bike tire. A fat mountain bike tire, there’s more surface area but they run at a lower PSI, so there’s more squish to it. That’s kind of the idea behind Hoka. For people who are new to the sport, maybe more injury-prone or getting off an injury, the construction of the shoe is really good at protecting the body.”

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Six of the best party snacks | Life and style

Crab and fennel tarts (pictured above)

Prep 1 hr
Chill 1-2 hr
Cook 30 min
Makes 12

For the pastry
175g butter, diced
200g plain flour, plus extra for dusting
2 tsp grated parmesan
1 egg yolk
15ml ice-cold water
1 tsp salt

For the filling
Juice of 1 lemon
100ml olive oil
Salt and black pepper
1 fennel bulb, finely diced
20g dill (or fennel top), chopped
300g white crab meat
150g brown crab meat
10g parsley, chopped
1 pinch cayenne pepper

Heat the oven to 200C/390F/gas 6. Grease a 12-hole muffin tin with butter and sprinkle each mould with flour.

To make the pastry, rub the butter into the flour and parmesan using your fingertips or a food processor. Add the egg yolk and water, and work into a smooth dough. Chill in the fridge for at least an hour.

Roll out the pastry as thin as you can and, using a 7cm pastry cutter, cut out 12 rounds and use to line the moulds. Prick the pastry with a fork, then chill again for at least half an hour.

Blind bake the cases for 15 minutes, or until golden brown.

Whisk the lemon juice in a large bowl with the oil, salt and pepper to make a vinaigrette, then stir the chopped fennel, dill and white crab meat into the dressing.

To assemble, use a teaspoon to put the brown crab meat at the bottom of the tart cases. Top with the white crab and fennel mixture on top and season with cayenne pepper.

Egg, shrimp and caper buns

Egg shrimp and caper buns.

Egg, shrimp and caper buns. Photograph: Ola O Smit for the Guardian

Prep 30 min
Chill 1-2 hr
Cook 15 min
Makes 12

For the bun dough
7g dried yeast
600g plain flour
1 tbsp salt
375ml milk
40g butter
40g caster sugar

For the filling
6 eggs
100g brown shrimp
30g capers
4 tbsp good mayonnaise
10g tarragon, chopped
Salt and black pepper

Heat the oven to 190C/375F/gas 5.

For the buns, put the yeast, flour and salt in the bowl of a stand mixer with a dough hook attached.

In a small saucepan, warm the milk, butter and sugar over a low heat until the butter is just melted. Turn on the mixer and add the warm milk to the flour until well mixed. Knead in the machine until you have a shiny dough.

Cover the bowl with clingfilm and put in a warm place to prove until doubled in size – one to two hours. Dust a work surface with flour and split the dough into 12 equal pieces, roll into balls and place on a greaseproof tray, cover with clingfilm and leave to double again in size. When ready, bake for 10-15 minutes, until golden brown.

To make the filling, boil the eggs for seven minutes and rinse under cold water. Peel the eggs and chop finely, then add the shrimp, capers, mayonnaise and tarragon, mix well, and season to taste. To serve, split and butter the buns and fill with the egg and shrimp.

Grilled flatbread, anchovy and tomato

Grilled flatbread, anchovy and tomato.

Grilled flatbread, anchovy and tomato. Photograph: Ola O Smit for the Guardian

Prep 1 hr
Rest 1-2 hr, ideally overnight
Cook 10 min
Serves 6

For the flatbreads
2½ tsp dried yeast
700ml warm water
120g yoghurt
250g wholemeal bread flour
600g bread flour
1 tbsp salt
Olive oil, for brushing

For the topping
5 ripe tomatoes
1 tsp capers
100ml olive oil
Juice and zest of ½ lemon
½ bunch parsley, chopped
Salt and black pepper
1 tin anchovy fillets in oil
Celery leaves (optional)

In a large bowl, dissolve the yeast in the warm water, then add the yoghurt. Add the flours, and salt, then mix with your fingertips until a dough forms. Cover the bowl with clingfilm and leave to rise at room temperature.

After an hour, knead the dough until it comes away from the sides of the bowl. If it looks a little wet, add a bit of flour. Cover and chill, ideally overnight; otherwise, leave to stand at room temperature until it has doubled in size.

An hour before serving, grate the tomatoes into a bowl using the large side of a box grater. Add the capers, oil and lemon juice to make a fresh tomato dressing.

Heat a griddle pan on high, then divide the dough into six portions. On a floured surface, roll out each portion into ½cm-thick rounds.

Brush the grill rack with oil, dust the flatbreads with a little more flour, then cook the breads until lightly charred on one side. Using tongs, turn over and cook one to two minutes longer, until cooked through.

Add the parsley and salt and pepper to the tomato dressing right before serving, then spread it over the breads and top with the anchovy fillets. Garnish with celery leaves, if using, and serve.

Salt cod and sweetcorn fritters

Salt cod and sweetcorn fritters.

Salt cod and sweetcorn fritters. Photograph: Ola O Smit for the Guardian

Prep 30 min
Cook 10 min
Serves 4-6

160g flour
1 pinch salt
100ml water
100ml milk
100g butter
250g whole eggs
100g sweetcorn kernels
200g salt cod, poached and flaked
1 tsp sugar
10g dried fennel seeds
1 garlic clove, peeled and grated
10g chopped parsley
1 tsp dried chilli flakes
Oil, for frying
Mayonnaise, to serve

First, make a choux pastry. Put the flour and salt in a bowl. Put the water, milk and butter in a saucepan and bring to a boil. As soon as it boils, turn off the heat. Tip in the flour and quickly start beating with a wooden spoon or electric whisk. Keep mixing until the dough is lump-free and has formed a ball that pulls away from the sides of the pan.

Beat the eggs in a separate bowl and add to the dough a little at a time, beating well until fully incorporated. When it is ready, the mixture will be shiny and smooth.

Put all the other ingredients in a bowl and slowly combine with the choux batter.

Heat the oil in a large, deep saucepan to 180C/350F. Using a tablespoon, add small dollops of the fritter mixture to the hot oil in small batches.

Fry until deep brown, turning occasionally so they cook evenly. Remove with a slotted spoon and drain on a paper-covered baking tray in the oven to keep warm.

Pork hand pies with quince mustard

Pork hand pies with quince mustard.

Pork hand pies with quince mustard. Photograph: Ola O Smit for the Guardian

Prep 1 hr
Cook 40-50 min
Makes 12

1 onion, peeled and finely diced
1 knob butter
3g black pepper
3g fennel seeds
½ tsp ground mace
1 garlic clove, peeled and minced
150ml good dry cider
380g minced pork shoulder
100g minced bacon
10g sage, chopped
10g parsley, chopped
500g all-butter puff pastry
1 egg yolk, beaten
10ml double cream

To serve
100g quince paste
50g dijon mustard

Heat the oven to 190C/375F/gas 5.

To make the filling, fry the onion in the butter until soft and sweet. Add the spices, garlic and cider, and reduce until the liquid evaporates, then set aside to cool.

Put the pork, bacon, herbs and onion mixture in a bowl, season and mix well.

Roll out the pastry to about 3mm thick. Using an 11-12cm cutter, cut out 12 rounds for the pie bases. Then, using a 6-7cm cutter, cut out 12 lids. Line a 12-hole muffin tin with the pie bases, shaping the pastry to fit the sides – it should come slightly above the rim of each mould.

Put a heaped tablespoon of the filling into each case. Mix together the beaten egg and the double cream to make an egg wash, then brush the rims with the wash and top the pies with the lids. Crimp the edges and brush the tops with more egg. Prick holes in the top of the lids with a fork, then bake for 40-50 minutes, until golden brown.

To make the quince mustard, mix the mustard with the quince paste and serve with the pork pies.

Rye crackers with whipped goat’s curd and greens

Rye crackers with whipped goat’s curd and greens.

Rye crackers with whipped goat’s curd and greens. Photograph: Ola O Smit for the Guardian

Prep 10 min
Cook 30 min
Serves 4-6

For the crackers
150g rye flour
150g plain flour
5g dried yeast
2 tsp salt
1½ tsp linseeds
300ml warm water

For the topping
500g swiss chard
200g peas
1 garlic clove, peeled and thinly sliced
5g dried chilli
10g mint, chopped
10ml olive oil
150g goat’s curd
50ml milk
Juice and zest of ½ lemon

Heat the oven to 180C/350F/gas 4. Mix all the dry ingredients for the crackers in a bowl. Add the water and mix to obtain a smooth dough. Set aside to rest for 30 minutes.

Between two sheets of baking parchment, roll out the dough as thinly as possible. Peel off the top layer of parchment and bake on a baking tray for 10-12 minutes, then set aside to cool.

Separate the chard stalks from the leaves of and chop both into 5mm pieces. Cook the stalks in boiling water, then add the leaves a few minutes later. Cook until soft, remove with a slotted spoon – reserving the cooking water in the pot – and refresh in iced water.

Blanch the peas in the boiling water, then refresh in the iced water with the chard.

Fry the garlic and chilli in olive oil until golden brown. Add the chard and peas, and fry gently for another two to three minutes. Leave to cool, then stir in the mint.

Whip the goat’s curd and milk to obtain a smooth paste. Break the cracker into pieces, spread with the curd mixture, top with the greens and dress with the lemon juice and zest.

All recipes by Marksman Public House, London E2, @marksman_pub

  • Food styling: Ellie Mulligan. Prop styling: Anna Wilkins

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Seven ways … to prevent weak bones | Life and style

Walk quickly for 10 minutes, three times a day

Weight-bearing exercise (walking, running) helps to keep bones strong. Ideally, you need a mix of “feet on the ground” activity and muscle resistance such as weights, press-ups and swimming. No one knows precisely how much exercise is needed; the NHS says adults aged 19 to 64 should do at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity every week. Three 10-minute periods of fast walking every day is a good target. There is little evidence that exercise prevents fractures once you have weak bones (called osteopenia if it is mild and osteoporosis if more severe), but people who keep active into old age are less likely to fall – and if you don’t fall, you are less likely to break a bone.

Don’t smoke – especially when you are young

Smoking has an impact on bone-building cells, especially in people younger than 30, who are still accumulating bone. Smokers are at increased risk of osteoporosis and fractures and stopping smoking is likely to improve bone strength. It is a complicated association: smokers may also be thinner than the healthy weight range; if you fall but have no padding, you are more likely to fracture a bone. After the menopause, women make some oestrogen – which keeps bones strong – in their fat layer. Once your ovaries stop producing oestrogen, you can’t make much of it if you don’t have any fat.

Don’t get too thin

No one is saying that it helps to be overweight; you need to be able to keep moving, of course, and the heavier you are, the more force will land on your bones if you fall. But small-framed, low-weight people have less total bone mass. As a result, losing even small amounts of weight may result in bones that break easily.

HRT helps

Women are four times more likely than men to get osteoporosis, since their levels of oestrogen fall after the menopause. Hormone replacement therapy can help maintain strong bones and prevent fragility fractures (fractures that occur on minimal force). Once you have osteoporosis, though, it is not very effective.

You don’t need calcium supplements, but consider vitamin D

Vitamin D tablets

People with a restricted diet my benefit from taking vitamin D supplements. Photograph: Alamy

A healthy, balanced diet should provide the recommended 700 millgrams a day of calcium that you need to make new bone as old bone is replaced. There is no good evidence that calcium supplements are needed if you are at low risk of osteoporosis. There has been some concern that taking extra calcium may lead to harmful deposits around the heart, increasing the risk of heart attack. The consensus is that dietary sources are preferable to supplements, except if you can’t get enough calcium from your diet because you have a condition such as Crohn’s disease that prevents adequate absorption of dietary calcium. You need about 10 micrograms a day of vitamin D for healthy bones; 90% comes from the action of sunlight on our skin and 10% from diet (such as oily fish). People who never expose their skin to sunlight or have a restricted diet may need vitamin D supplements. The NHS recommends that breast-fed babies up to one year old and all children aged one to four should have a daily supplement, while children over five and adults should consider one in the winter months.

Don’t trip up

The main risk of having thin bones is fragility fractures. Elderly people who fall and break a hip may never regain their independence. Vertebral fractures may be silent initially, but tend to recur and can become multiple and extremely painful and disabling. One of the most useful things you can do for a frail relative or friend is check their home for potential hazards such as loose carpet. Occupational therapy assessment, to fit hand rails to steps and baths, can be accessed via local authority websites or a GP referral.

Know your risk

You are at increased risk of osteoporosis if you are elderly, female, underweight or immobile; if you have had previous fractures; and if you smoke, drink a lot of alcohol (more than 30 units a week) or take steroids for a condition such as rheumatoid arthritis. You can do your own risk assessment (there is a useful risk calculator on the University of Sheffield’s website). In some cases, a bone density scan is useful. This can be arranged by your GP, but the scan needs to be taken in context of your overall risk. If you are at high risk, you will probably be advised to have treatment to build up your bones, even if the scan is normal.

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